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Application of Stem Cells in Cardiovascular

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDS)

Cardiac disease is still the primary cause of mortality in the world. An estimate shows that 17.3 million people died from CVDs in 2014, representing 30% of all global deaths. The number of people who die from CVDs, mainly from heart disease and stroke, will increase to reach 23.3 million by 2030.

Group of Disorders of Heart and Blood vessels

Coronary heart disease

Cerebrovascular disease

Peripheral arterial disease

Rheumatic heart disease

In the absence of effective endogenous or drug induced repair mechanisms following cardiac injury, cell-based therapies have rapidly emerged as potential novel therapies to treat myocardial failure.

Treatment Options

Coronary Angioplasty

 

Radiofrequency Ablation

 

Pacemaker Insertion

 

Cardiac Defibrillator

 

Resynchronization Therapy

Risk factors associated with various therapies include discomfort and bleeding, blood vessel damages, arrhthymia kidney damage. STEM CELL Therapy could potentially repair and regenerate damaged heart tissue.



Classification of Cells According To their Source



Bone Marrow-Derived Stem/Progenitor Cells
 
Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)
 
Mesenchymal (Stromal) Stem Cells (MSCs)
 
Endothenial Progenitor Cells
 

Umbilical Cord Blood Cells

 
Resident Cardiac Stem/Progenitor Cells
 
Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
 
Skeletal myoblasts
 
Embryonic Stem Cells




CAD Treatment : EECP + Autologoustem Cells

Patients with CAD and Ejection fraction below 50% are good candidates. EECP 30 to 40 cycle plus 3 autologus stem cells IV infusions given. Stem Cells are injected/ infused IV at 7 days intervals. EF improved by 10% to 15% over the average EECP improvements. EF improvement visible in 85% of the cases in the study group.

Case Studies


  • Minimizing the potential of transplanted undifferentiated SCs to form teratomas.
  • Methods ensuring a purified cardiomyocyte population from SCs.
  • Safe and effective methods of cell delivery and ensuring that transplanted cells remain in the myocardium.

    http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets
  • Gnecchi M, He H, Noiseux N, Liang OD, Zhang L, Morello F, Mu H, Melo IG, Pratt RE, Ingwall JS, Dzau VJ. Evidence supporting paracrine hypothesis for Akt-modified mesenchymal stem cell-mediated cardiac protection and functional improvement. FASEB J 20: 661-669, 2006.
  • Tang YI. Zhao Q, Qin X, Shen L, Cheng L, Ge J, Phillips MI. Paracrine action enhances the effects of autologous mesenchymal stem cell transplantation on vascular regeneration in rat model of myocardial infarction. Ann ‘Thorac Surg 80: 229-236, 2005.
  • Togel F, Hu Z, Weiss K, Isaac J, Lange C, Westenfelder C. Administered mesenchymal stem cells protect against ischemic acute renal failure through differentiation-independent mechanisms. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 289: F31-F42, 2005.
  • Nelson TJ, Martinez-Fernandez A, Yamada S, et al. Repair of acute myocardial infarction by human stemness factors induced pluripotent stem cells. Circulation, 2009; 120:408e16